Archive

Tag Archives: Early Bronze Age

Flaming June has arrived, at least for the moment. We are at just about 200 m above sea level at Dinkling Green, so we’ve had a nice cooling breeze to go with our few days of sunshine but it has still been quite hot enough. I know it is much hotter everywhere else in Europe but we burn easily up here.

DSC_0044

It’s hot and hard going, but look at the view.

On site we have removed a layer of extremely dense scree and found, beneath that, that there was a layer of very solid clay. Although we should be digging through an area that was part of the old calamine mine¹ so far all the deposits wouldn’t be unusual in an undisturbed scree outside a cave. It is fair to say that it has been fairly heavy going so far, we have been using the geology hammers a lot and sieving the sediments is hard work. However, from Wednesday onwards we have been finding occasional pieces of worked chert to encourage us in our belief that there was prehistoric activity in or around the cave. I got Nathan to wash these on Friday morning and they dried in about ten seconds in the heat so we were able to photograph some of the best bits to post here.

DSC_0047

This one I found in the sieve on Wednesday morning. Quite a big flake of very fine light grey chert.

DSC_0048

One of a pair of very large flakes of a similar grey chert which Eleanor found on Thursday afternoon. We are finding quite a lot of this grey chert on this site, which is interesting because on all the sites on New Laund Farm most of the chert was much blacker.

DSC_0050

Much like this piece of dark grey/black chert here. Hopefully, as we get further into the clay layer next week we will start to get more of these chert pieces.

Rick

¹Just typing the words ‘old calamine mine’ has set the Scooby Doo theme off in my head

 

Heaning Wood Bone Cave in West Cumbria is a prehistoric burial cave with a long history of research. Ian Smith has recently shown that the human bone from the site was Early Bronze Age while the large assemblage of different species of animal remains were Early Neolithic.

SONY DSC

Cave explorers in the mid 20th century got into the Cave this way through an extremely tight squeeze further along this horizontal passage but, by the time Ian was carrying out his research, improvements in the average British diet meant that no one was capable of entering the cave that way.

SONY DSC

This was probably the prehistoric entrance to the cave. It was discovered in the 1970s by the landowner and has been cleared and explored by Martin Stables. This shows that the cave was more of a vertical shaft than previous suspected, which fits well with the pattern I identified in my upcoming book for Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age cave burials to be in vertical shafts like this. I have been helping Martin with the survey and recording of the cave. As you can imagine, producing a measured drawing of a constricted and irregular shape like a cave can be quite challenging. In the past I have used a total station to do this kind of thing, which involves a lot of time underground but is relatively quick on the computer afterwards.

SONY DSC

For more on site speed and accuracy of survey I did the Heaning Wood survey with our Faro Focus laser scanner. This shot shows the machine set up at the choke point in the vertical shaft where most of the human and animal bone built up. Behind the tripod you can see the shaft heading off down into the bowels of the earth. This also gives a good sense of how tight the space is, this was taken from the ladder on the way back up the entrance shaft. The scanner works by bouncing its laser off the cave wall and logging the position of many millions of points to build up a 3d model of the cave. To do this it has to spend about 30 minutes spinning around on the tripod and while it is doing this you can’t be in sight of the scanner (otherwise a ghostly blurred image of the surveyor turns up in the final computer model). When you set the machine off it gives you about 30 seconds to get out of range, this is fine if you are scanning a room (we also use this scanner in crime scenes) but scrambling out through a narrow vertical tube in this time is more of a challenge.

Heaning scan screen shot corres view

Even so, the survey is the easy part. I did three overlapping scans of the cave interior to cover any blank spots. Clare and I then spent about three hours in the imaging lab trying to make sense of the data. When you get the numbers out of the scanner these different scans have to be registered and linked together to create the 3d model of the cave. This is what the raw scan data looks like. Within the two scans on screen here you can see various control objects that I added into the cave to help the scanner link the different scans together. These include white plastic globes and checkerboard patterns. The software compares the measured distances between these points to build up a grid of similar distances. This view shows how Clare and I made sure that the software was linking the right control points together. It normally does this automatically but some times, and this was one of them, its gets confused. The issue this time was that two of the globes were close together and only one showed in each scan. The software decided they were the same point but, of course, they weren’t.

Heaning scan screen shot scan 1

Once this little issue was fixed these two scans snapped together nicely. This view shows the merged model with the first scan highlighted to show which bits of data came from where. We are now at the stage where we have a nice 3d model of the main bit of the cave we can rotate and examine.

Heaning scan screen shot2

This view shows the width of the chamber quite nicely, while also giving a sense of the depth of the vertical shaft.

Heaning scan screen shot

On the other hand, this view clearly shows up the depth of the deep fissure beyond the point where most of the bone was found. This really shows well how a 3d scan like this can give you a much more nuanced understanding of a cave than even the most accurate plan.

Rick

 

 

 

I’ve been in North London for the last week, celebrating various birthday related things. While my eldest went roaring off up the M1 in his auntie’s red MX5 to the Harry Potter Studio Tour for his birthday (don’t worry, she was driving), I was rattling over to Dalston Junction on the Overground to do a porcelain course with Jo Davies for mine. I’ve been making pottery for almost as long as I have been studying it as an archaeologist. I started working with clay at Southampton Student’s Union as a Wednesday afternoon diversion whilst I was a PhD student. At the time I wanted to understand hand building and bonfire firings, because that was how the Neolithic pottery I was studying was made.

WP_20180403_15_16_34_Pro

Since then, however, I have got much more interested in making wheel-thrown pieces in glazed stoneware. Over the years I have developed a style of making which is probably best described as robust. Being a part-time night-class potter is a very good way of never getting out of any bad habits you have ever picked up and stoneware lets you get away with a certain amount of chunkiness in your handles and bases. Lots of my stoneware pots, like the one above, look as if they would be best used in an eighteenth century tavern brawl. Porcelain is a very different, less forgiving, material than stoneware. Last year I did a three day porcelain course with Jo at West Dean College in Sussex (which has a history and ambience worth a whole post on its own), trying to move on from my ‘Gin Lane’ aesthetic. As a follow on from this, I spent my sessions in Jo’s studio last week working on being a bit more delicate in my throwing.

While I was making mugs, and Jo was unpicking the glitches in my technique, we were talking about pottery and the connection between making things and memory. Learning to make things is a really good example of the kind of bodily ‘muscle memory’ that Paul Connerton refers to as ‘habit-memory’. There are loads of examples of this kind of remembering in all craft processes. What is interesting about this kind of memory is that it is a three way process involving your body, the physical thing you are trying to do and feedback from the person teaching you. When you are making something you can see and feel if it is working. This means that the habit-memory of learning to make something is directly connected to the physical form of the actual thing you made.

SONY DSC

We were also talking about materials and memory in pottery, particularly about this bone tempered Collared Urn from the Moseley Heights ring cairn I wrote about a couple of years ago. There is a temptation to think about this pot as special in some way, because it is tempered with what may be cremated human bone. This seems like a very good example of a memorial object. This pot preserves the memory of a person because it contains ground up bits of their body. However, most Bronze Age urns are tempered with ground up bits of other pots. These pots would have been directly connected to the actions of the person who made them. I don’t think we can assume that the pot tempered with the remains of someone’s bones is any more directly ‘memorial’ than one which is tempered with the remains of their actions.

At this point Jo asked if I knew the work of Julian Stair, which I didn’t. Being a diligent student I went away and looked him up later. The first thing my reading showed was that I absolutely should have heard of him, a major exhibition –  Quietus – was commissioned by mima (which is in my hometown of Middlesbrough) and one of its other venues was the National Museum of Wales (where I used to work and where 90% of the pots I studied for my PhD are kept). Quietus used ceramics to explore the containment of the human body after death and included Memorium: an installation in which audio visual memories of one person’s life were projected around a bone china urn which contained and was tempered with his ashes. Apart from the congruence between Memorium and the Moseley Heights urn, there is a lot of interesting overlap between archaeology and Stair’s writing on objects and memory. I need to read a lot more of this, but to start with I have put a paper of his on craft and the body on the reading list.

Rick

I was out at Thornton earlier in the week to talk to the Wyre Archaeology Group about the discoveries we have made on the project and coincidently we have just had the first unofficial results from the radiocarbon dating programme. At the moment the dates don’t have lab numbers but they were all carried out by the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Lab and funded by the Natural Environment Research Council’s NRCF scheme and we are very grateful for their support. As mentioned in previous posts we submitted bits of charcoal and bone from various features to try to build up a history of when the site was in use.

DSC_0054

This is [N06] the first feature that we have good dates for, the latest of a complex of intercutting pits inside the Whitewell enclosure and seen here being excavated by Phil and Kayla in July 2014. There were two layers in this pit and we managed to get a date from both of them. The lower fill built up sometime between 2271 and 2033 BC and charcoal was still going into the upper fill around 300 years later, as we have a date from that layer of between 1746 and 1618 BC. These dates belong at the beginning and end of the Early Bronze Age in Britain. We have always thought that [N06] was later than most of the other archaeology in this area, because the fill of it was visible as a charcoal spread from much higher in the sequence than some of the other pits. I think that this date shows that the complex as a whole was in use for a very long time, as we have a single late pit apparently in use for most of the Early Bronze Age. If the Whitewell Enclosure is a causewayed enclosure it should date to around 3600 BC, the use of the pits on the same hill clearly lasted for much longer than that. This is excellent news for our major project aim of trying to understand long-term landscape use and how people remembered special places.

DSC_0122

We also had some samples in from the presumed Late Neolithic henge and timber circle on the next spur of New Laund Hill. These included the single surviving piece of animal bone from that site (juvenile pig jaw) that Christina excavated with great care from the very sticky clay at the base of the henge ditch in 2012. This ought to have given us a very good date for when that ditch was originally dug but sadly, there was not enough collagen surviving in the bone to get a reliable result.

NL13_192

We had two samples from this post-hole in the timber circle. One was a chunk of the cremation that was placed there after the post was put up and we are still waiting for that result to come back. The other was a small piece of hazel charcoal from base of the post-hole, which ought to tell us when the post was first erected. This date was entirely unexpected, given that timber circles are supposed to be either Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age. That piece of hazel was burnt sometime in the Middle Iron Age, between 396 and 209 BC.

There are two possible explanations for this. Either we have found a very large round-house on the top of a hill, which is just coincidently full of earlier prehistoric types of worked chert, or, and I think I favour this explanation, the hazel charcoal has been accidentally displaced downwards into a much lower level than it was in originally. We did find some crucible fragments and charcoal in this general area at a much higher level which could well be Iron Age. If this is the case then my prime suspect for this is the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Thanks to many conversations with Kevin and Chris, UCLan’s resident earthworm specialists, I have seen impressive evidence of the depth that these animals can burrow. A single worm digs a vertical burrow with chambers which can be more than a metre deep.

Lumbricus terrestris

The (potentially) guilty party. The date we still have pending on the cremated bone from the top of the post-hole will be interesting. If that is Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age, which is more in line with our expectations, then we will assume the hazel charcoal was intrusive. If that is Iron Age too then the worms are off the hook (sorry) and we have to come up with a new interpretation for our timber circle.

Rick

Literally. We may have found evidence of crushed human bone being mixed into the clay used to make Early Bronze Age pottery. While I was looking at the Moseley Height Bronze Age pottery last week in Towneley Hall Museum I saw something that I thought was very exciting. Large white specks in the body of the pot had a very bone-like appearance. I kept quiet about this in last week’s post because I hadn’t had chance to check it out properly, however…

SONY DSC

This is the surviving portion of Urn C. It is the bit around the rim and, as you can see, it has been fairly intensively restored since it was excavated in 1950. There are big sections where the shape has been reconstructed (or made up) using plaster of paris and brown paint. The rest of it is original Bronze Age ceramic but, to keep it from crumbling, it has been impregnated with something like PVA resin. Oddly, this means that the whole thing now feels as if it is made of plastic, which I suppose in one sense it is.

What this image also shows are the white specks of whatever it was that had been used to temper the clay. I’ve posted before about the processes of pottery manufacture and the need to add temper to clay. There are various practical reasons why you do this; it lets the steam out during firing and can improve the heat resistance of the finished pot. However, studies of modern potters in traditional societies around the world also show that it is often added for all kinds of other strange reasons. This is not to say that the temper wasn’t regarded as extremely practical by the people who used it – you can see, for example, how putting something into the mix of a burial urn that stopped the spirits of the dead from coming to eat your soul might be a high priority.

IMAG0611

Last week, peering through the layers of resin wIth my little x20 magnification jeweller’s lens, I wasn’t quite sure what these white lumps were. Mike very generously agreed to loan us the pot so I could bring it back to Preston and put it under a microscope. On Wednesday morning Clare and I borrowed the fancy new digital microscope in the Forensic Science lab (usually used by our ballistics people to study gun cartridges) and set about trying to capture good images of the mystery tempering material.

Urn C000001

Here is one of the images from the microscope, clearly showing the bone structure in this particular fragment. Also, just as clearly showing all the shiny plastic of the consolidating resin and the microscopic particles of soil and roots now trapped in there forever.

Urn C000012

This is another fragment at slighter smaller magnification. Jim has had a look at these too and, like me, he is convinced that they are particles of burnt bone.

Burnt bone as temper in British prehistoric pottery is unusual, but not completely unknown. I know of Neolithic sherds from Hazleton North in Gloucestershire and Market Deeping in Lincolnshire, where bone was used in this way, and there are almost certainly others. We now have lots of questions about our bone tempering. Why did this pot need crushed bone in it when the other two urns from the site don’t have any? Is it cremated human bone or is it animal? (we are casting about for a non-destructive way to answer that one) and what is the relationship between the cremated bone buried in the pot and the bone temper fired into the body of the pot? We can begin to imagine all kinds of fascinating connections between the body of the pot, the body of the person buried in the pot, the food they ate and the other people buried in the ring cairn.

Rick